Evidence-based is a term initially coined in the 90s in the field of medicine, but today its principles extend to disciplines such as education, criminology, public policies, social work and (recently) management.
The assumption of Evidence-Based Management (EBM) is that managerial decisions should always rely on two factors: (1) finding the best “evidence” available to support a conclusion and (2) critical thinking.
By “evidence” we mean any information, fact or data that support a hypothesis. The evidence can come from scientific research, from the organisation in which the manager operates, or even from personal-professional experiences.
“Critical thinking” means the ability to assess the degree of certainty, generalisation and appropriateness of the evidence in support of a decision.
Some managers neither know where to find information to support their choices, nor they know how to make a critical assessment of the quality of the evidence gathered. Furthermore, managers often do not even have trained staff available to do it on behalf of them.
Consequently, it happens that a decision is made using “irrational” or biased thinking (heuristics) or by resort to “best practices” (success stories or anecdotes) rather than rely on rationality and scientific evidence.
EBM seeks to address this difficulty by helping managers, or the individuals acting on their behalf, to research and critically evaluate the validity, generalizability and applicability of the evidence available.
In recent decades, a great deal of scientific research has been conducted that has involved practical management issues. Topics include, by way of example: employee motivation, goal setting, performance, organisational change management, leadership, staff selection, wellbeing and stress management, enhancement of strength, employee evaluation, learning.
There is a tremendous amount of evidence available, nowadays.
This course aims to provide the basis for Evidence-Based Management and Critical Thinking to the managers or their collaborators.
HR Managers, Managers or their collaborators who wish to learn the basics of Evidence-Based Management.
Basics of psychology and neuroscience of decision making and persuasion
- The dual nature of human decision: rational and “irrational” thinking
- Selectors between the two thinking systems
- The common bias of irrational thinking
- How to become a rational-evidence decision maker
The biases (systematic errors) of human mind
- Pattern recognition
- Overconfidence bias
- Halo effect
- False consensus effect
- Self serving attribution bias
- Sunk cost fallacy
- Cognitive dissonance reduction
- Confirmation bias
- Authority bias
- Small numbers fallacy
- In-group bias
- Recall bias
- Anchoring bias
- Availability bias
The source of information
- Scientific research design
- Organizational data, facts and figures
- Professional experience and judgment
- Stakeholder’s values and concerns
The EBM 6A’s approach
- Asking: translating a practical issue or problem into an answerable question with PICO(C)
- Population or Problem
- Intervention or success factor
- Acquiring: systematically searching for and retrieving the evidence
- Where do we search? Public, private, and field-specific source of knowledge
- How do we search? Snowball and building block methods
- Appraising: critically judging the trustworthiness and relevance of the evidence
- Apprising the research design: which study for which question?
- Apprising the level of evidence
- Aggregating: weighing and pulling together the evidence
- Degree of certainty
- Degree of generalizability
- Statistical Significance
- Effect size
- Methodological pitfall
- Applying: incorporating the evidence into the decision-making process
- Applicability of the findings to your situation
- Feasibility of the intervention
- Evaluating stakeholder’s expectation
- Assessing: evaluating the outcome of the decision taken
- Writing a CAT (Critical Appraised Topic)
- Tools evidence-based in Selection and Assessment
- Tools evidence-based for Managing Performances
- Tools evidence-based for managing engagement and motivation
- Tools evidence-based to develop resilience
- Tools evidence-based for coaching